CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol)

CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol) CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol) is a more secure procedure for connecting to a system than the Password Authentication Procedure (PAP). Here's how CHAP works: After the link is made, the server sends a challenge message to the connection requestor. The requestor responds with a value obtained by using a one-way hash function. The server checks the response by comparing it its own calculation of...
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Packet Loss Definition

Packet Loss Definition Packet loss is the failure of one or more transmitted packets to arrive at their destination. This event can cause noticeable effects in all types of digital communications. The effects of packet loss: In data, packet loss produces errors. In videoconference environments it can create jitter. In pure audio communications, such as VoIP, it can cause jitter and frequent gaps in received speech. In the worst cases, packet loss can cause severe mutila...
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hop Definition

hop Definition 1) In a packet-switching network, a hop is the trip a data packet takes from one router or intermediate point to another in the network. On the Internet (or a network that uses TCP/IP), the number of hops a packet has taken toward its destination (called the "hop count") is kept in the packet header. A packet with an exceedingly large hop count is discarded. 2) Using Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD), a hop is a switch to another radio frequency (RF) channel.  
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Packet Definition

Packet Definition A packet is the unit of data that is routed between an origin and a destination on the Internet or any other packet-switched network. When any file (e-mail message, HTML file, Graphics Interchange Format file, Uniform Resource Locator request, and so forth) is sent from one place to another on the Internet, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) layer of TCP/IPdivides the file into "chunks" of an efficient size for routing. Each of these packets is separately numbered and i...
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TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) TCP/IP, or the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, is a suite of communication protocols used to interconnect network devices on the internet. TCP/IP can also be used as a communications protocol in a private network (an intranet or an extranet). The entire internet protocol suite -- a set of rules and procedures -- is commonly referred to as TCP/IP, though others are included in the suite. TCP/IP specifies how data i...
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GSM (Global System for Mobile communication)

GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) is a digital mobile telephony system that is widely used in Europe and other parts of the world. GSM uses a variation of time division multiple access (TDMA) and is the most widely used of the three digital wirelesstelephony technologies (TDMA, GSM, and CDMA). GSM digitizes and compresses data, then sends it down a channel with two other streams of user data, each in its own time slot. It operates at eithe...
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Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP)

Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP) What is the Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP)? The Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP) is a grant program associated with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The grant program was created to promote the development and adoption of broadband throughout the United States, particularly in unserved and underserved areas. BTOP will oversee disbursement of $4.7 billion in a number of categories. The prog...
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Long Term Evolution (LTE)

Long Term Evolution (LTE) Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a 4G wireless broadband technology developed by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), an industry trade group. 3GPP engineers named the technology "Long Term Evolution" because it represents the next step (4G) in a progression from GSM, a 2G standard, to UMTS, the 3G technologies based upon GSM. LTE provides significantly increased peak data rates, with the potential for 100 Mbpsdownstream and 30 Mbps upstream, reduced lat...
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LMDS (Local Multipoint Distribution System)

LMDS (Local Multipoint Distribution System) is a system for broadband microwavewireless transmission direct from a local antenna to homes and businesses within a line-of-sight radius, a solution to the so-called last-mile technology problem of economically bringing high-bandwidth services to users. LMDS is an alternative to installing optical fiber all the way to the user or to adapting cable TV for broadband Internet service. Depending on the implementation, LMDS offers a bandwidth of up to 1.5...
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Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS)

Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS) Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS) is a broadcasting and communications service that operates in the ultra-high-frequency (UHF) portion of the radio spectrum between 2.1 and 2.7 GHz. MMDS is also known as wireless cable. It was conceived as a substitute for conventional cable television (TV). However, it also has applications in telephone/fax and data communications. In MMDS, a medium-power transmitter is located with an om...
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